A line chart is a way of plotting data points on a line. Often, it is used to show trend data, or the comparison of two data sets.
A bar chart provides a way of showing data values represented as vertical bars. It is sometimes used to show trend data, and the comparison of multiple data sets side by side.
A radar chart is a way of showing multiple data points and the variation between them. They are often useful for comparing the points of two or more different data sets.
Polar area charts are similar to pie charts, but each segment has the same angle - the radius of the segment differs depending on the value.
This type of chart is often useful when we want to show a comparison data similar to a pie chart, but also show a scale of values for context.
Pie and doughnut charts are probably the most commonly used charts. They are divided into segments, the arc of each segment shows the proportional value of each piece of data.